Very interesting document, I found the Plato vs Democritus analogy a nice synchronicity as I wrote about that in my book You Are Dreaming. And if you are waiting to hear it. This reality is a literal dream. Consciousness is the computer and dreams are the programming language. Vague as that is. The Consciousness of the Universe is a unified system of awareness that handles all the heavy computation to make reality tick, you are just a finite individual part of this larger system. Your dreams a part of the programming language and if you have dreams that later come true you can see in first-person through your own experience the truth, the relationship of this larger reality system. My page is riddled with insights into this relationship so tumble down the rabbit hole.
On the other side in support of Materialism there was Democritus. The Father of modern day Materialism. He believed the Universe was made up of Atoms and everything else was just opinions.
With regards to physical matter, we know that Democritus was correct, the Universe is made of Atoms. Atoms are the result of matter being divided down by chemical reactions, and there are only 118 known atoms which make up the Periodic Table of Elements. For someone existing in 350B. C this is a remarkable realization.
However, Democritus was wrong as the Atom is indeed made up of other particles such as protons and neutrons which form the atom nuclei. To further split the atom, we need to get into Particle Physics and break apart the proton and neutron through Nuclear Fission or smash together atoms with Nuclear Fusion. This is where we start to observe the smaller composite particles and elementary particles and observe the forces which keep the Atomic structure together.
Protons and Neutrons consist of smaller particles known as Quarks which make up Hadrons. Quarks are elementary particles meaning that further breaking them down will not produce any more measurable particles. However, the Quark itself is theoretical because it has never been observed on it’s own, only reduced from observing the Hadron itself.
Quantum Mechanics provides several theoretical particles such as the yet to be discovered Bosson Higgs Elementary Scalar Particle. To further complicate particle physics, research into elementary particles revealed with the electron something known as particle/wave duality where a particle could behave as both a wave or a particle.
This introduced Wave-Function and Wave-Function collapse to the world of Quantum Mechanics when trying to describe the result of observing the state of a particle. The famous Double-Slit experiment, or Young’s Experiment shows the particle/wave duality of light.